4 Inventory Analysis Strategies You Need to Know

Inventory analysis. It’s a phrase you’re likely familiar with or have never heard of before. Either way, this process is crucial for businesses since it has a direct influence on a company’s financial performance. Without inventory analysis, companies will find it difficult to meet customer demand and incur additional costs down the line.

If you’re in the process of starting an inventory analysis but you don’t know where to start, you’ve come to the right place! Let’s discuss four inventory analysis strategies that will help you avoid overstock and improve your company’s cash flow.

Strategy #1: VED Analysis

VED analysis is a crucial aspect of inventory management that helps organizations assess and manage their stock levels based on the product’s importance. It is a strategic approach used to categorize and evaluate products based on various criteria, enabling businesses to make informed decisions about prioritizing which products they need to keep in stock.

VED analysis typically involves classifying products into three categories: V, E, and D, where each category represents a different level of importance and focus:

  • V (Vital) Category: This category comprises products that are critical to the organization’s operations. These are certain products that are essential for production, and any disruption in the supply chain can significantly impact the business.

    V-category products are often few but have a high impact on the organization’s overall performance. Therefore, they require the utmost attention and close monitoring.
  • E (Essential) Category: Products in this category are important but not as critical as V-category suppliers. They are necessary for the organization’s operations but may have some degree of substitutability or alternative sources.

    These products require regular monitoring and performance evaluation to ensure they meet consumer demand.
  • D (Desirable) Category: D-category products are considered less critical to the organization’s operations. These are goods that are nice to have but not essential. These suppliers are often more numerous, and the organization may have more flexibility in managing them.

    However, they should still be assessed periodically to identify opportunities for cost savings or quality improvements.

VED analysis helps ensure the availability of critical items and guides brands in making informed decisions regarding stock levels. This approach helps strike a balance between cost control and operational efficiency, ultimately contributing to improved supply chain performance and customer satisfaction.

Strategy #2: Unit price analysis

The primary purpose of unit price analysis is to gain a comprehensive understanding of the true cost of a single unit of a product or item, allowing for more informed decision-making. By calculating the unit price, individuals or businesses can compare different products or items based on their cost per unit, rather than just their total price or quantity.

Here’s how this strategy works:

  • Calculate total unit cost: The first step is to calculate the total cost associated with each unit of an inventory item. This cost includes not only the purchase price but also any additional expenses such as shipping, handling, storage, taxes, and other overhead costs. By adding up all these costs, businesses determine the total unit cost.
  • Compare inventory items: With the total unit cost calculated, businesses can now compare different inventory items based on their unit prices. This comparison enables them to identify which items are more cost-effective to stock and which may have higher unit costs.
  • Cost-saving opportunities: Unit price analysis highlights cost-saving opportunities. For example, if a particular item has a high unit cost due to expensive shipping fees, a business may explore alternative shipping methods or negotiate better deals with suppliers to reduce this cost. This can lead to significant cost savings in the long run.
  • Pricing strategies: Knowing the true unit cost of inventory items is crucial for setting competitive prices. Businesses can ensure that their prices cover all expenses while remaining attractive to customers. Unit price analysis helps prevent underpricing, which can lead to losses, or overpricing, which can deter potential buyers.
  • Inventory optimization: By comparing unit prices with sales velocity (how quickly items are sold), businesses can make informed decisions about inventory levels. Items with low unit costs and high demand may justify higher stock levels, while items with high unit costs and low demand may lead to inventory reduction strategies like clearance sales or discontinuation.

This type of inventory analysis assists in pricing decisions, procurement strategies, and inventory optimization. It allows businesses to make informed choices that enhance profitability and operational efficiency while ensuring the availability of products to meet customer demand.

Strategy #3: ABC Analysis

ABC inventory analysis is a widely used inventory management technique that helps businesses classify and prioritize their inventory items based on their importance and value. The core concept of ABC analysis is to categorize inventory items into three distinct groups: A, B, and C, with each group representing a different level of significance.

These categories are determined based on specific criteria, usually the annual consumption value of each item.

  • Category A – Consists of high-value items that represent a relatively small percentage of the total number of items but account for a significant portion of the total inventory value. These items are considered the most critical and require close monitoring and robust inventory control measures.

    Businesses typically focus on minimizing stockouts and overstock situations for Category A items since any disruptions in their availability can have a substantial impact on revenue and customer satisfaction.
  • Category B Contains items of moderate importance. They represent a middle ground between Category A and Category C items in terms of value. While not as critical as Category A items, they still require reasonable attention to ensure they are available when needed.

    Inventory managers may use more moderate replenishment strategies for Category B items and set reorder points accordingly.
  • Category C – Comprises low-value items that make up a significant percentage of the total items but contribute only a small portion of the total inventory value.

    These items are generally less critical and may not justify the same level of inventory management effort as Category A or B items. Inventory managers often apply more relaxed replenishment strategies, such as periodic or bulk ordering, for Category C items.

ABC inventory analysis works by categorizing items based on their annual usage value, which considers both the consumption rate and cost per unit. This categorization helps businesses prioritize their inventory management efforts, allocate resources efficiently, and implement appropriate inventory control strategies for each category.

By doing so, organizations can reduce carrying costs, minimize stockouts for critical items, and optimize their overall inventory management processes.

Strategy #4: SDE Analysis

In inventory analysis, the SDE strategy refers to classifying products based on the scarcity of supply, allowing businesses to plan their product procurement accordingly. The three categories are:

  • Scarce – Products that fall within this category are typically rare or hard to acquire. Managing scarce items can be challenging because they are often essential for production or customer demand, and their scarcity can lead to supply chain disruptions or increased costs.

    Companies need to carefully plan and forecast their needs for scarce items to avoid stockouts or production delays. Special attention is given to sourcing, supplier relationships, and risk mitigation strategies for these items.
  • Difficult – Products in the difficult category inventory are not necessarily scarce but are complex or challenging to handle and control. These items may have unique storage requirements, shelf-life considerations, or specific handling instructions.

    Managing difficult items requires a higher level of expertise and specialized knowledge compared to handling more straightforward products. Companies need to establish proper protocols, training, and quality control measures to ensure that these items are managed effectively while minimizing risks and costs.
  • Easy – Easy items in SDE analysis are those that are readily available, have stable demand patterns, and are relatively simple to manage. These items are typically standard products with predictable supply and demand dynamics.

    Managing easy items involves routine processes such as reorder point calculations, safety stock management, and efficient order processing. While they may not pose significant challenges, it’s essential to handle easy items efficiently to optimize inventory costs and ensure customer satisfaction.

With SDE analysis, businesses can categorize their inventory items based on availability, complexity, and management requirements. To ensure effective inventory management, brands must tailor their processes to suit the characteristics of each category, ensuring a balance between meeting customer demand, minimizing costs, and mitigating risks.


Effective inventory management is a critical aspect of any successful business. By implementing the right inventory analysis strategies, companies can optimize their supply chain, reduce costs, and improve customer satisfaction. From VED analysis to SDE analysis, these strategies offer a roadmap to efficient inventory control. Remember, the key to success lies in adapting these strategies to suit your specific business needs and industry demands.

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